On November 3, 2020, American citizens will elect the Grand Voters to designate the next American president. Long before that, as of February 3, members of the Democratic Party will nominate the candidate who will face Donald Trump.

Since January, we hear the word “caucus”From Iowa because it’s the first day of voting. Iowa is, since the cycle of elections of 1976, the state which decides first on the candidates for the presidential American and sets the tone for the continuation of the primaries, even if a victory in this state is far from guaranteeing a final success. As with the presidential election, it is an indirect election: instead of directly selecting the candidate we want to support, the vote determines the number of delegates for the national congress. These delegates then choose the candidate for the presidency of their party.

Why are we talking about caucuses, and also primaries? State and local governments organize primary elections, while caucuses are private events that are directly managed by the political parties themselves. For primaries, the vote can be “open” or closed ”. States that organize “open” votes leave voters free to vote for Democrats or Republicans, regardless of the party in which they are registered. For "closed" votes, the opposite is true, you have to vote in the party that you officially support.

Caucuses are historic and may seem a bit outdated. To choose a candidate, the persons registered on a list go to the meeting of the electoral committee. Voters must stand in the corner of the meeting room to be counted as one of the candidates they support. During this physical vote, representatives are chosen, and in turn, they will vote for the county representatives, who will vote for the delegates. Fewer than ten states still use this type of voting, such as Alaska or Nebraska.

After the famous Iowa caucus, the Democratic primaries are scheduled in three states: New Hampshire on February 11, Nevada on February 22 and South Carolina on February 29. Then, “Super Tuesday”, the keyword of this campaign, is organized on March 3 in 15 states and one territory, including the two most populous states in the country: California and Texas. After several important states such as Michigan or Ohio, which vote on March 10, Arizona, Florida and Illinois are called to the polls on March 17. The candidates who win these key states can easily put pressure on their opponents.

It would be too easy if all the states were organized in the same way. In addition to the different voting methods, depending on whether it is a primary or a caucus, some states are more restrictive than others and for example in Florida, only party members can vote, while in Iowa, supporters are invited to participate by registering on D-Day. The number of voters per candidate is not necessarily proportional. In Florida again, “The winner takes it all". If a candidate obtains 55%, then all representatives will have to vote for the candidate in question.

The Democratic convention will take place July 13-16 in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, where 3,979 chosen delegates will decide between the candidates. In general, there is very little suspense and the Democrats are already starting the name of the lucky man. Among the Republicans, the convention to officially designate Donald Trump will take place from August 24 to 27, 2020 in Charlotte, North Carolina. Alaska, Arizona, Hawaii, Kansas, Nevada, South Carolina and Virginia have already canceled their primaries and are supporting President Trump.


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